Existence of this random element does not say however that any scientific community could be engaged in the activity without some system of the standard representations. It does not reduce and roles of that set of the actual material on which activity of community is based.
According to the third direction of criticism of normal science, it is supposed that normal research exists, but it is not the basic for science in general. It also does not represent the terrible evil as what it is considered by Popper. It is not necessary to attribute to normal science too great value – neither positive, nor negative.
The foundation to the historical direction in philosophy of science was laid by K. Popper. Instead of the analysis of ready knowledge, than representatives of logical positivism were engaged, it concentrated the efforts on the analysis of emergence of new knowledge, on change of scientific theories, on development of science. The essential contribution in this direction was made by professor of Princeton university of the USA Thomas Kuhn.